The main risks of consuming poisonous mushrooms for the human being range from hallucinogenic effects to, in extreme cases, death. Can cause damage to the stomach, in the liver or the heart.
The medical name by which is known this type of poisoning is micetismo. It is recommended to not pick them up for own consumption if you are not an expert in the field, given that the effects can be dangerous to your health.
The cause of the toxicity of these mushrooms are some of the components that negatively affect the human body. In the great majority of cases, cooking the mushrooms does not reduce the risk of poisoning.
Among the poisonous mushrooms, most known highlights several types of Amanitas, the Leucocoprinus or Entoloma sinuatum, also known as “mushroom misleading”.
Main risks of the fungi poisonous for humans
1- Damage digestive System
The effects are less dangerous than they can suffer by consuming poisonous mushrooms. They are produced by species such as Entoloma, the Russula or some kind of Boletus, and the symptoms are often quite mild.This type of fungi can cause acute gastroenteritis, with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting. With proper treatment is easy to relieve these symptoms and do not pose any problem beyond the inconveniences typical of this kind of conditions.
2 – Damage in the liver
The fungus is considered the main responsible of the damage to the liver is the Amanita, more specifically the Amanita phalloides.
In fact, it is estimated that almost 90 % of the foodborne illness produced by consumption of mushrooms is due to this species. The poisoning is caused by two compound called falotoxina and amatoxina. The damage that can cause this type of fungus in the liver ranging from minor disorders to death, in cases of acute liver failure.
There have been cases in which it has been necessary to have a liver transplant, or the need to undergo dialysis for life. In these cases, the mortality rate ranges between 5% and 10%.
3- Problems in the kidney
There are various species which present risks to the kidney, with the danger even lead to death.
Not all fungi that produce these effects are strictly poisonous. Some are edible, such as the bells (Morchellas), but if not cooked enough they can generate a very dangerous kidney failure.
Other fungi, even more dangerous are those of the genus Cortinarius. These do not have symptoms that affect the stomach, but if they cause increased urination, thirst, and failure of the kidney, which can lead to death or to the imperious need of a transplant.
4 – Syndrome coprínico
This syndrome is caused by the ingestion of mushrooms Coprinus, although the symptoms make their appearance, it is necessary that the consumer has also taken alcohol.
The coprinina present in these mushrooms causes the body is not able to metabolize the alcohol, so there is an accumulation of this in the body.
Although your symptoms are unpleasant and, no doubt, will give a hard time to those who are suffering, do not come to be life-threatening and usually go away in a few days. The patient will suffer vomiting, sweating, tachycardia and hypotension.
5 – Effects hallucinogenic and delusional
There are other types of fungi whose effects affect the brain and the ability to distinguish reality. These fungi can be divided into two classes: delirious and hallucinogenic.
Are those that cause the so-called “binge drinking by mushrooms” and their symptoms tend to be neurological.
Produce aggressiveness, problems in coordinating body movements and, in more severe cases, depression, neurological that can lead to coma.
However, usually do not go cause a few hours of anguish.
In many cases, are ingested voluntarily to cause these effects as a mode of amusement or seeking to alter the perception of reality. The problem comes when the symptoms they cause are beyond.
Can occasionally cause seizures, mental confusion, or more serious psychiatric conditions such as panic, extreme anxiety, or mental disorders.
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